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Definition and History of Pipes

Posted on 01 November 2020 by Admin
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Pipe is a round sleeve used to flow fluid / liquid or gas. The term pipe is usually confused with the term tube, but usually the term for pipes having a diameter of more than 3/4 in. Based on the standard in its manufacture, the pipe is usually based on its nominal diameter, it usually has a fixed ouside diameter (OD) value or a fixed outer diameter, while for its thickness uses the term schedule which has a variable value.

In a pipe or more precisely a piping system, we will know the term NPS. NPS which stands for Nominal Pipe Size is a term that indicates the nominal diameter (not the actual size) of a pipe. The meaning of nominal here is only standard numbers that are used as general units. An example is when we mention a 2 "(two in) pipe then the pipe has a size of about two in, but the original size is not exactly two in. The two in value is only the nominal used to indicate the type of pipe so that both the seller and the user know the same, but not the actual size.

Initially, the pipe size shown was the ID, which was known as the IPS (iron pipe size). Pipe with IPS 6, then it has a pipe diameter value of about 6 inc, as well as for sizes 2 inc, 4 inc and so on. At that time, the size of the pipe thickness was only one, which was known as standard (STD).

However, with the increasing use of pipes, especially for very high pressures, a pipe with the maximum thickness is used, which is known as extra strong (XS). The higher the pressure, the thicker the pipe. Ketebalah is in a piping system known as a schedule (SCH).

So, the NPS shows the Outside Diameter of a pipe, whereas the schedule shows the thickness of a pipe. So, each pipe will have the same outside diameter, the value of which is not necessarily the same as the nominal. Only for nominal above 14 in, the outer diameter of the flat pipe is the same as the nominal.

The pipe itself is divided into two terms, piping and pipeline. Piping is used for the term pipe that flows from one place to another in close proximity, while the pipe used is relatively small. While the term pipeline is used to flow fluid from one facility (plant) to another, and it is usually very large in size.


Piping according to history, was first used by the Chinese people to flow water to their farms around 3000 BC. Apart from the Chinese population, the inhabitants of the area that was formerly called the Valley (now Pakistan and the North of India) in 2500 BC are known as experts in making house plumbing networks.

Apart from that country, Egypt was also recorded in history when its inhabitants managed to drain the Nile river water to flow their rice fields. The Roman State was also successful in designing and establishing pipelines especially for drinking water, bathing and fountains in the 150th century AD.

  • Plumbing, for channeling domestic water
  • Pipelines | Transport of gas or liquid pipelines over very long distances
  • As mechanical components such as:
    • Rollers, rollers in conveyors
    • Bearing
  • For the oil or gas industry:
    • As an oil rig
    • Delivering oil or gas for processing
  • Flow fluids, whether gaseous or liquid

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